Гуьржийн абат

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Гуьржийн йоза
ქართული ანბანი
Йозан тайпа консонантан-вокалийн йоза
Меттанаш картвелийн меттанаш
Мур V бӀешарахь — тахана а
Йозан агӀо аьрру агӀонера аьтту агӀонхьа
ISO 15924 Geor
Йозан масала
Нусхурин текстан масала Джручан Инжилан агӀо. XII бӀешо.
Эрмалойн (маштоцан) а, шира гуьржийн а абатийн цхьадолу элпийн тералла

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Гуьржи́йн йо́за — цхьацца картвелийн меттанаш, уггаре хьалха гуьржийнчо а лело абатан йоза, ткъа иштта наггахь леладо мегрелийн, сванийн, кхин а меттанаша. Доьшу аьрру агӀонера аьтту агӀорхьа. Таханлера гуьржийн абат лаьтта 33 элпех; даккхий элпаш абатехь дац, амма кортошкахь а, кхин цхьацца меттигашкахь а дерриг дош яздан тарло лакхара а, лахара а арадоху элементаш доцуш, нисса йогӀу шина асан юкъахь (хьажа суьрте) — иштта яздар кхечу абаташкара даккхийн элпийн аналог лору, цунах олу «мтаврули»[1]. Оцу кепара гуьржийн йозан символаш Юникод юкъатоьхна 11.0 верси тӀиера йолмйна[2].

Гуьржийн абатан бух тӀехь йира барон Услара «Кавказан абат», Кавказан йоза доцу меттанашна фиксаци ярхьама[3][4]. 19381954 шерашкахь гуьржийн йоза (кхин тӀе хьаьркаш тоьхна) кхин а леладора абхазийн а, хӀирийн[5] а (Къилба ХӀирийчоьнна) меттанаша.

Историн очерк[нисъе бӀаьра | нисъе]

Хуцури а, мхедрули а терахьийн маьӀнаца

Картвелистикехь ю тайп-тайпана гипотезаш гуьржийн абатал хьалхарчу абатах лаьцна. Тайп-тайпанчу теорешца, цуьнан бух бу Ӏарамийн, грекийн я коптийн йозан тӀаьхь. Немцойн Ӏилманчо Х. Юнкера, иранан меттан говзанчо[6], аратеттира мхедрули а, хуцури а, эрмалойн абатан санна Ӏарамийн-пехлевийн йозан бух тӀаьхь хиларан верси, кхин тӀе гайтира эрмалойн йозанах дозуш доцу хуцурин йоза аршакидийн пехлевих далар. Юнкерца, мхедрули йоза хуцурин курсиван кеп санна лара мегар ду[7][8].

Дуьненан историн Ӏилманехь уггаре шуьйра яьржира V—VII бӀешеран эрмалойн хьосташкахь бух болу ойла, цуьнца дуьххьарлера гуьржийн йоза — мргвловани — кхоьллинарг ву Месроп Маштоц (иштта 405 шарахь эрмалойн абат кхоьллина волу)[9][10]. Амма и чӀагӀо бакъ ца карайо эрмалойн доцу хьосташкахь[11]. Гуьржийн йоза Маштоца кхолларан гипотеза къобал йо яккхийчу энциклопедеш[12][13][14][15][16] а, академикан Ӏилманчаша а[17][18][19]. А. Г. Периханяна а, Дж. Гриппина а дийцарехь, тарло, Месроп Маштоц дуьххьал дӀа гуьржийн йоза даьккхинарг вацахь а, амма тӀаьхьарниг цуо дакъа ца лаьцчи кхоллалур йолуш яцара[20][21].

Билгалдахарш[нисъе бӀаьра | нисъе]

  1. Revised proposal for the addition of Georgian characters to the UCS
  2. Proposed New Characters: The Pipeline
  3. П. К. Услар «О колхах»
  4. Статья об П. К. Усларе Архиван копи 5 июлехь 2017 дуьйна Wayback Machine тӀехь
  5. Осетинское письмо на грузинской алфавитной основе, таблица соответствий и примеры текстов (изданные в Юго-Осетинской АО журналы 1950 года).
  6. Encyclopaedia Iranika «JUNKER, HEINRICH FRANZ JOSEF»
  7. И.Фридрих История письма / И.М.Дьяконов. — М.: Наука, 1979. — С. 150.
  8. ГӀалат дешнаш далорна Тег <ref> нийса яц; тIетовжаран Алфавит йоза яздина дац
  9. Lenore A. Grenoble. Language policy in the Soviet Union. Springer, 2003. — ISBN 1-4020-1298-5. — P. 116: «The creation of the Georgian alphabet is generally attributed to Mesrop, who is also credited with the creation of the Armenian alphabet».
  10. Rayfield D. The Literature of Georgia: A History (Caucasus World). RoutledgeCurzon, 2000. — ISBN 0-7007-1163-5. — P. 19: «The Georgian alphabet seems unlikely to have a pre-Christian origin, for the major archaeological monument of the first century 4IX the bilingual Armazi gravestone commemorating Serafua, daughter of the Georgian viceroy of Mtskheta, is inscribed in Greek and Aramaic only. It has been believed, and not only in Armenia, that all the Caucasian alphabets — Armenian, Georgian and Caucaso-AIbanian — were invented in the fourth century by the Armenian scholar Mesrop Mashtots.<…> The Georgian chronicles The Life of Kanli — assert that a Georgian script was invented two centuries before Christ, an assertion unsupported by archaeology. There is a possibility that the Georgians, like many minor nations of the area, wrote in a foreign language — Persian, Aramaic, or Greek — and translated back as they read».
  11. Avedis K.Sanjian. The World’s Writing Systems. Oxford University Press, 1996- P.356.

    According to Koriun 1964: 37, 40-41, Mesrop also invented scripts for georgian and Caucasian Albanian, but this claim is not confirmed by non-Armenian sources.

  12. Catholic Encyclopedia. Mesrob: «But his activity was not confined to Eastern Armenia. Provided with letters from Isaac he went to Constantinople and obtained from the Emperor Theodosius the Younger permission to preach and teach in his Armenian possessions. He evangelized successively the Georgians, Albanians, and Aghouanghks, adapting his alphabet to their languages, and, wherever he preached the Gospel, he built schools and appointed teachers and priests to continue his work. Having returned to Eastern Armenia to report on his missions to the patriarch, his first thought was to provide a religious literature for his countrymen».
  13. Britannica. Alphabet: «The Aramaic alphabet was probably also the prototype of the Brāhmī script of India, a script that became the parent of nearly all Indian writings. Derived from the Aramaic alphabet, it came into being in northwest India. The Armenian and Georgian alphabets, created by St. Mesrob (Mashtots) in the early 5th century ad, were also based on the Aramaic alphabet».
  14. Glen Warren Bowersock, Peter Robert Lamont Brown, Oleg Grabar. Late antiquity: a guide to the postclassical world. Harvard University Press, 1999. — ISBN 0-674-51173-5. — P. 289: James R. Russell. Alphabets. « Mastoc' was a charismatic visionary who accomplished his task at a time when Armenia stood in danger of losing both its national identity, through partition, and its newly acquired Christian faith, through Sassanian pressure and reversion to paganism. By preaching in Armenian, he was able to undermine and co-opt the discourse founded in native tradition, and to create a counterweight against both Byzantine and Syriac cultural hegemony in the church. Mastoc' also created the Georgian and Caucasian-Albanian alphabets, based on the Armenian model».
  15. George L. Campbell. Compendium of the World’s Languages. — Routledge; New edition edition (May 14, 1998) — ISBN 0-415-16049-9. — С. 183: «Old Georgian was written in the xucuri character, traditionally invented by Mesrop Mashtots, to whom the Armenians owe their script. In the eleventh century the ecclesiastical xucuri was replaced by the character known as the mxedruli 'civil', which is in use today. Georgian is the only Caucasian language to have developed its own script».
  16. Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of Literature. Merriam-Webster, 1995. — ISBN 0-87779-042-6 — С. 756. Статья «Mesrob»: «A collection of biblical commentaries, translations of patristic works, and liturgical prayers and hymns is credited to Mesrob, corroborating his reputation for having laid the foundation of a national Armenian liturgy. He is also credited with contributing to the origin of the Georgian alphabet».
  17. «История Востока», ЗАКАВКАЗЬЕ В IV—XI вв — Институт Востоковедения РАН: «Христианизация закавказских стран имела важные последствия и для развития местной культуры. На рубеже IV—V вв. появилась армянская письменность, созданная Месропом Маштоцем. Не без его помощи были изобретены и национальные алфавиты в Грузии и Албании».
  18. Peter R. Ackroyd, C. F. Evans, Geoffrey William Hugo Lampe, Stanley Lawrence Greenslade. The Cambridge History of the Bible: From the Beginnings to Jerome — Cambridge University Press, 1975 — ISBN 0-521-09973-0. — С. 367: «Georgia was converted during the fourth century, tradition has it by the agency of an Armenian slave woman, and whether these details are in any measure true or not, the tradition probably indicates the source of the Georgians' knowledge of Christianity and the Christian scriptures. These did not begin to be translated into Georgian until Mesrop, provider of an Armenian alphabet, also supplied the Georgians with an adequate means of transcription for their speech».
  19. David G.K. Taylor Архиван копи 21 майхь 2009 дуьйна Wayback Machine тӀехь. CHRISTIAN REGIONAL DIVERSITY // Philip Francis Esler, NetLibrary, Inc. The Early Christian World. Routledge, 2002. — ISBN 0-203-47062-1. — P. 335: «Because of its location on the Black Sea, Georgia was influenced by contacts with churches in Armenia (Mashtots, fresh from creating the Armenian alphabet, created a Georgian alphabet in c. 410)».
  20. Периханян А. Г. К вопросу о происхождении армянской письменности // Переднеазиатский сборник. — М.: Наука, 1966. — Вып. 2. — С. 127—133.
  21. Greppin, John A.C.: Some comments on the origin of the Georgian alphabet. — Bazmavep 139, 1981. — Pp. 449—456.